CIVIL ENGINEERING FORMULAS

CIVIL ENGINEERING FORMULAS – POCKET GUÍA

Publicidad Mercado Pago

This handy book presents more than 2000 needed formulas for civil engineers to help them in the design office, in the field, and on a variety of construction jobs, anywhere in the world. These formulas are also useful to design drafters, structural engineers, bridge engineers, foundation builders, field engineers, professional-engineer license examination candidates, concrete specialists, timberstructure builders, and students in a variety of civil engineering pursuits.

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The book presents formulas needed in 12 different specialized branches of civil engineering—beams and girders, columns, piles and piling, concrete structures, timber engineering, surveying, soils and earthwork, building structures, bridges, suspension cables, highways and roads, and hydraulics and open-channel flow. Key formulas are presented for each of these topics. Each formula is explained so the engineer, drafter, or designer knows how, where, and when to use the formula in professional work. Formula units are given in both the United States Customary System (USCS) and System International (SI). Hence, the text is usable throughout the world. To assist the civil engineer using this material in worldwide engineering practice, a comprehensive tabulation of conversion factors is presented in Chapter 1.

CONTENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING FORMULAS

  • Chapter 1. Conversion Factors for Civil Engineering Practice
  • Chapter 2. Beam Formulas
    • Continuous Beams / 16
    • Ultimate Strength of Continuous Beams / 53
    • Beams of Uniform Strength / 63
    • Safe Loads for Beams of Various Types / 64
    • Rolling and Moving Loads / 79
    • Curved Beams / 82
    • Elastic Lateral Buckling of Beams / 88
    • Combined Axial and Bending Loads / 92
    • Unsymmetrical Bending / 93
    • Eccentric Loading / 94
    • Natural Circular Frequencies and Natural Periods of Vibration of Prismatic Beams / 96
  • Chapter 3. Column Formulas
    • General Considerations / 100
    • Short Columns / 102
    • Eccentric Loads on Columns / 102
    • Column Base Plate Design / 111
    • American Institute of Steel Construction Allowable-Stress Design Approach / 113
    • Composite Columns / 115
    • Elastic Flexural Buckling of Columns / 118
    • Allowable Design Loads for Aluminum Columns / 121
    • Ultimate-Strength Design of Concrete Columns / 124
  • Chapter 4. Piles and Piling Formulas
    • Allowable Loads on Piles / 132
    • Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles / 133
    • Toe Capacity Load / 134
    • Groups of Piles / 136
    • Foundation-Stability Analysis / 139
    • Axial-Load Capacity of Single Piles / 143
    • Shaft Settlement / 144
    • Shaft Resistance to Cohesionless Soil / 145
  • Chapter 5. Concrete Formulas
    • Reinforced Concrete / 148
    • Water/Cementitious Materials Ratio / 148
    • Job Mix Concrete Volume / 149
    • Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete / 150
    • Tensile Strength of Concrete / 151
    • Reinforcing Steel / 151
    • Continuous Beams and One-Way Slabs / 151
    • Design Methods for Beams, Columns, and Other Members / 153
    • Properties in the Hardened State / 167
    • Compression at Angle to Grain / 220
    • Recommendations of the Forest Products Laboratory / 221
    • Compression on Oblique Plane / 223
    • Adjustments Factors for Design Values / 224
    • Fasteners for Wood / 233
    • Adjustment of Design Values for Connections with Fasteners / 236
    • Roof Slope to Prevent Ponding / 238
    • Bending and Axial Tension / 239
    • Bending and Axial Compression / 240
  • Chapter 7. Surveying Formulas
    • Units of Measurement / 244
    • Theory of Errors / 245
    • Measurement of Distance with Tapes / 247
    • Vertical Control / 253
    • Stadia Surveying / 253
    • Photogrammetry / 255
  • Chapter 8. Soil and Earthwork Formulas
    • Physical Properties of Soils / 258
    • Index Parameters for Soils / 259
    • Relationship of Weights and Volumes in Soils / 261
    • Internal Friction and Cohesion / 263
    • Vertical Pressures in Soils / 264
    • Lateral Pressures in Soils, Forces on Retaining Walls / 265
    • Lateral Pressure of Cohesionless Soils / 266
    • Lateral Pressure of Cohesive Soils / 267
    • Water Pressure / 268
    • Lateral Pressure from Surcharge / 268
    • Stability of Slopes / 269
    • Bearing Capacity of Soils / 270
    • Settlement under Foundations / 271
    • Soil Compaction Tests / 272
    • Compaction Equipment / 275
    • Formulas for Earthmoving / 276
    • Scraper Production / 278
    • Vibration Control in Blasting / 280
  • Chapter 9. Building and Structures Formulas
    • Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Shear in Buildings / 284
    • Allowable-Stress Design for Building Columns / 285
    • Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Building Columns / 287
    • Allowable-Stress Design for Building Beams / 287
    • Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Building Beams / 290
    • Allowable-Stress Design for Shear in Buildings / 295
    • Stresses in Thin Shells / 297
    • Bearing Plates / 298
    • Column Base Plates / 300
    • Bearing on Milled Surfaces / 301
    • Plate Girders in Buildings / 302
    • Load Distribution to Bents and Shear Walls / 304
    • Combined Axial Compression or Tension and Bending / 306
    • Webs under Concentrated Loads / 308
    • Design of Stiffeners under Loads / 311
    • Fasteners for Buildings / 312
    • Composite Construction / 313
    • Number of Connectors Required for Building Construction / 316
    • Ponding Considerations in Buildings / 318
  • Chapter 10. Bridge and Suspension-Cable Formulas
    • Shear Strength Design for Bridges / 322
    • Allowable-Stress Design for Bridge Columns / 323
    • Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Bridge Columns / 324
    • Allowable-Stress Design for Bridge Beams / 325
    • Stiffeners on Bridge Girders / 327
    • Hybrid Bridge Girders / 329
    • Load-Factor Design for Bridge Beams / 330
    • Bearing on Milled Surfaces / 332
    • Bridge Fasteners / 333
    • Composite Construction in Highway Bridges / 333
    • Number of Connectors in Bridges / 337
    • Allowable-Stress Design for Shear in Bridges / 339
    • Maximum Width/Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements for Highway Bridges / 341
    • Suspension Cables / 341
    • General Relations for Suspension Cables / 345
    • Cable Systems / 353
  • Chapter 11. Highway and Road Formulas
    • Circular Curves / 356
    • Parabolic Curves / 359
    • Highway Curves and Driver Safety / 361
    • Highway Alignments / 362
    • Structural Numbers for Flexible Pavements / 365
    • Transition (Spiral) Curves / 370
    • Designing Highway Culverts / 371
    • American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Design Procedure / 374
  • Chapter 12. Hydraulics and Waterworks Formulas
    • Capillary Action / 382
    • Viscosity / 386
    • Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces / 387
    • Fundamentals of Fluid Flow / 388
    • Similitude for Physical Models / 392
    • Fluid Flow in Pipes / 395
    • Pressure (Head) Changes Caused by Pipe Size Change / 403
    • Flow through Orifices / 406
    • Fluid Jets / 409
    • Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes / 410
    • Water Hammer / 412
    • Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis / 412
    • Temperature Expansion of Pipe / 414
    • Forces Due to Pipe Bends / 414
    • Culverts / 417
    • Open-Channel Flow / 420
    • Manning’s Equation for Open Channels / 424
    • Hydraulic Jump / 425
    • Nonuniform Flow in Open Channels / 429
    • Weirs / 436
    • Flow Over Weirs / 438
    • Prediction of Sediment-Delivery Rate / 440
    • Evaporation and Transpiration / 442
    • Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures / 443
    • Computing Rainfall Intensity / 443
    • Groundwater / 446
    • Water Flow for Firefighting / 446
    • Flow from Wells / 447
    • Economical Sizing of Distribution Piping / 448
    • Venturi Meter Flow Computation / 448
    • Hydroelectric Power Generation / 449

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