Principles of geotechnical engineering

PRINCIPLES OF GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

Publicidad Mercado Pago

Principles of Geotechnical Engineering was originally published in 1985 and was intended for use as a text for the introductory course in geotechnical engineering taken by practically all civil engineering students, as well as for use as a reference book for practicing engineers. The book was revised in 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010. This eighth edition has a coauthor, Khaled Sobhan, of Florida Atlantic University. As in the previous editions of the book, this new edition offers an overview of soil properties and mechanics, together with coverage of field practices and basic engineering procedures, without changing the basic philosophy of the original text. It is not the intent of this book to conform to any design codes.

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CONTENTS OF PRINCIPLES OF GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

  • Geotechnical Engineering—A Historical Perspective 1
    • 1.1 Introduction 1
    • 1.2 Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th Century 1
    • 1.3 Preclassical Period of Soil Mechanics (1700–1776) 5
    • 1.4 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase I (1776–1856) 6
    • 1.5 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase II (1856–1910) 6
    • 1.6 Modern Soil Mechanics (1910–1927) 7
    • 1.7 Geotechnical Engineering after 1927 8
    • 1.8 End of an Era 12
    • References 13
  • Origin of Soil and Grain Size 15
    • 2.1 Introduction 15
    • 2.2 Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil 15
    • 2.3 Rock-Forming Minerals, Rock and Rock Structures 26
    • 2.4 Soil-Particle Size 37
    • 2.5 Clay Minerals 39
    • 2.6 Specific Gravity (Gs) 47
    • 2.7 Mechanical Analysis of Soil 48
    • 2.8 Particle-Size Distribution Curve 55
    • 2.9 Particle Shape 61
    • 2.10 Summary 62
    • Problems 63
    • References 66
  • Weight–Volume Relationships 67
    • 3.1 Introduction 67
    • 3.2 Weight–Volume Relationships 67
    • 3.3 Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity 70
    • 3.4 Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content 74
    • 3.5 Various Unit Weight Relationships 75
    • 3.6 Relative Density 81
    • 3.7 Comments on emax and emin 84
    • 3.8 Correlations between emax, emin, emax  emin, and Median Grain Size (D50) 87
    • 3.9 Summary 90
    • Problems 90
    • References 92
  • Plasticity and Structure of Soil 94
    • 4.1 Introduction 94
    • 4.2 Liquid Limit (LL) 94
    • 4.3 Plastic Limit (PL) 101
    • 4.4 Shrinkage Limit (SL) 103
    • 4.5 Liquidity Index and Consistency Index 109
    • 4.6 Activity 110
    • 4.7 Plasticity Chart 112
    • 4.8 Soil Structure 114
    • 4.9 Summary 119
    • Problems 120
    • References 121
  • Classification of Soil 123
    • 5.1 Introduction 123
    • 5.2 Textural Classification 124
    • 5.3 Classification by Engineering Behavior 126
    • 5.4 AASHTO Classification System 126
    • 5.5 Unified Soil Classification System 130
    • 5.6 Comparison between the AASHTO and Unified Systems 132
    • 5.7 Summary 142
    • Problems 142
    • References 145
  • Soil Compaction 146
    • 6.1 Introduction 146
    • 6.2 Compaction—General Principles 146
    • 6.3 Standard Proctor Test 147
    • 6.4 Factors Affecting Compaction 150
    • 6.5 Modified Proctor Test 154
    • 6.6 Empirical Relationships 154
    • 6.7 Structure of Compacted Clay Soil 161
    • 6.8 Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties 163
    • 6.9 Field Compaction 166
    • 6.10 Specifications for Field Compaction 171
    • 6.11 Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction 172
    • 6.12 Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials 179
    • 6.13 Evaluation of Soils as Compaction Material 182
    • 6.14 Special Compaction Techniques 182
    • 6.15 Summary and General Comments 192
    • Problems 192
    • References 195
  • Permeability 198
    • 7.1 Introduction 198
    • 7.2 Bernoulli’s Equation 198
    • 7.3 Darcy’s Law 200
    • 7.4 Hydraulic Conductivity 202
    • 7.5 Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 204
    • 7.6 Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Granular Soil 211
    • 7.7 Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Cohesive Soils 218
    • 7.8 Directional Variation of Permeability 223
    • 7.9 Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil 225
    • 7.10 Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells 230
    • 7.11 In Situ Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clay Soils 232
    • 7.12 Summary and General Comments 236
    • Problems 237
    • References 241
  • Seepage 243
    • 8.1 Introduction 243
    • 8.2 Laplace’s Equation of Continuity 243
    • 8.3 Continuity Equation for Solution of Simple Flow Problems 245
    • 8.4 Flow Nets 249
    • 8.5 Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net 250
    • 8.6 Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil 254
    • 8.7 Mathematical Solution for Seepage 256
    • 8.8 Uplift Pressure under Hydraulic Structures 258
    • 8.9 Seepage through an Earth Dam on an Impervious Base 259
    • 8.10 L. Casagrande’s Solution for Seepage through an Earth Dam 262
    • 8.11 Filter Design 264
    • 8.12 Summary 267
    • Problems 267
    • References 270
  • In Situ Stresses 271
    • 9.1 Introduction 271
    • 9.2 Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage 271
    • 9.3 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Upward Seepage 276
    • 9.4 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Downward Seepage 280
    • 9.5 Seepage Force 280
    • 9.6 Heaving in Soil Due to Flow around Sheet Piles 285
    • 9.7 Use of Filters to Increase the Factor of Safety against Heave 290
    • 9.8 Effective Stress in Partially Saturated Soil 293
    • 9.9 Capillary Rise in Soils 294
    • 9.10 Effective Stress in the Zone of Capillary Rise 296
  • Stresses in a Soil Mass 305
    • 10.1 Introduction 305
    • 10.2 Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane 306
    • 10.3 The Pole Method of Finding Stresses along a Plane 310
    • 10.4 Stresses Caused by a Point Load 312
    • 10.5 Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Line Load 314
    • 10.6 Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Line Load 317
    • 10.7 Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length) 318
    • 10.8 Linearly Increasing Vertical Loading on an Infinite Strip 323
    • 10.9 Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading 326
    • 10.10 Vertical Stress below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 330
    • 10.11 Vertical Stress at Any Point below a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 331
    • 10.12 Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area 335
    • 10.13 Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure 342
    • 10.14 Summary and General Comments 345
    • Problems 346
    • References 352
  • Compressibility of Soil 353
    • 11.1 Introduction 353
    • 11.2 Contact Pressure and Settlement Profile 354
    • 11.3 Relations for Elastic Settlement Calculation 356
    • 11.4 Fundamentals of Consolidation 364
    • 11.5 One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test 368
    • 11.6 Void Ratio–Pressure Plots 370
    • 11.7 Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays 374
    • 11.8 General Comments on Conventional Consolidation Test 376
    • 11.9 Effect of Disturbance on Void Ratio–Pressure Relationship 378
    • 11.10 Calculation of Settlement from One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation 379
    • 11.11 Correlations for Compression Index (Cc) 381
    • 11.12 Correlations for Swell Index (Cs) 383
    • 11.13 Secondary Consolidation Settlement 389
    • 11.14 Time Rate of Consolidation 391
    • 11.15 Determination of Coefficient of Consolidation 400
    • 11.16 Calculation of Consolidation Settlement under a Foundation 408
    • 11.17 A Case History—Settlement Due to a Preload Fill for Construction of Tampa VA Hospital 410
    • 11.18 Methods for Accelerating Consolidation Settlement 414
    • 11.19 Precompression 416
    • 11.20 Summary and General Comments 420
    • Problems 421
    • References 427
  • Shear Strength of Soil 429
    • 12.1 Introduction 429
    • 12.2 Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion 429
    • 12.3 Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear 431
    • 12.4 Laboratory Test for Determination of Shear Strength Parameters 433
    • 12.5 Direct Shear Test 433
    • 12.6 Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated Sand and Clay 438
    • 12.7 General Comments on Direct Shear Test 440
    • 12.8 Triaxial Shear Test-General 445
    • 12.9 Consolidated-Drained Triaxial Test 446
    • 12.10 Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test 455
    • 12.11 Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test 461
    • 12.12 Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay 463
    • 12.13 Empirical Relationships between Undrained Cohesion (cu) and Effective Overburden Pressure ( ) 464
    • 12.14 Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay 466
    • 12.15 Strength Anisotropy in Clay 469
    • 12.16 Vane Shear Test 470
    • 12.17 Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength 476
    • 12.18 Shear Strength of Unsaturated Cohesive Soils 476
    • 12.19 Stress Path 479
    • 12.20 Summary and General Comments 484
    • Problems 485
    • References 489
  • Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest, Rankine, and Coulomb 491
    • 13.1 Introduction 491
    • 13.2 At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures 491
    • 13.3 Earth Pressure At-Rest 494
    • 13.4 Earth Pressure At-Rest for Partially Submerged Soil 496
    • 13.5 Rankine’s Theory of Active Pressure 499
    • 13.6 Theory of Rankine’s Passive Pressure 501
    • 13.7 Yielding of Wall of Limited Height 503
    • 13.8 Rankine Active and Passive Pressure with Sloping Backfill 504
    • 13.9 Diagrams for Lateral Earth-Pressure Distribution against Retaining Walls 506
    • 13.10 Coulomb’s Active Pressure 518
    • 13.11 Graphic Solution for Coulomb’s Active Earth Pressure 521
    • 13.12 Coulomb’s Passive Pressure 527
    • 13.13 Active Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 527
    • 13.14 Common Types of Retaining Walls in the Field 536
    • 13.15 Summary and General Comments 543
    • Problems 545
    • References 549
  • Lateral Earth Pressure: Curved Failure Surface 550
    • 14.1 Introduction 550
    • 14.2 Retaining Walls with Friction 550
    • 14.3 Properties of a Logarithmic Spiral 552
    • 14.4 Procedure for Determination of Passive Earth Pressure (Pp)—Cohesionless Backfill 554
    • 14.5 Coefficient of Passive Earth Pressure (Kp) 556
    • 14.6 Caquot and Kerisel Solution for Passive Earth Pressure (Granular Backfill) 560
    • 14.7 Passive Force on Walls with Earthquake Forces 563
    • 14.8 Braced Cuts—General 565
    • 14.9 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems of Open Cuts—Granular Soil 567
    • 14.10 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems for Cuts—Cohesive Soil 569
    • 14.11 Pressure Variation for Design of Sheetings, Struts, and Wales 569
    • 14.12 Summary 574
    • Problems 574
    • References 576
  • Slope Stability 577
  • Soil Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 644
  • Subsoil Exploration 678

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